Lead acid batteries

AGM – Absorbent Glass Mat

AGM batteries are lead acid batteries with improved float charging. This feature makes them perform better. Instead of submerging the plates into liquid electrolyte, the electrolyte is absorbed by the fibreglass separators. These batteries are recognized for their ability to give off strong currents over a long usage period. This technology is usually used to run power-hungry equipment installed in vehicles, cars, motorbikes and boats. It is also used in robotic applications and UPS’.

Advantages:

  • Spill-proof
  • Can be shipped without the restrictions applicable to dangerous goods
  • Able to give off strong currents
  • Long life expectancy
  • Low self-discharge
  • Faster charge times (Up to 5 times faster)
  • Vibration resistant
  • Can be installed at all angles ( except up side down)
  • Performs well at low and high temperatures.

Disadvantages:

  • Sensitive to overcharging
  • Sensitive to very high temperatures.

Storage:

Unlike other lead acid batteries which need to be recharged every 6 months, AGM batteries can be stored much longer before needing to be charged.

Specific products: Enersys Cyclon batteries

The first AGM cells were Cyclon cells. Enersys Cyclon batteries, made of 99.99% pure lead, are spiral-wound cells with thin lead foil electrodes. The high purity acid is absorbed by microporous fibreglass separators.

Pure Lead

Pure lead batteries use a tested, unique technology to offer recombinant VRLA batteries with an increased lifespan in a compact, high energy density design.

They are manufactured in accordance with the strictest international standards and are checked for reliable use in GSM, PCS and CDMA external communication racks. They are widely used in TV networks, emergency lighting, energy production and offshore applications.

Pure lead batteries are designed to work in applications which are exposed to high temperatures and harsh environments. The advanced technology of the plates and the manufacturing processes make pure lead batteries the ideal choice for long-term use.

Manufacturing of ENERSYS pure lead batteries:

  • Positive electrode: pure lead grid using a unique manufacturing process
  • Negative electrode: pure lead grid
  • Separator: high absorption, high stability micro-fibreglass separator
  • Container material: shockproof and UL94B flame retardant material
  • Electrolyte: high-purity diluted sulfuric acid absorbed in the separator
  • Terminals: leak-proof compression seal, tested in installation mode
  • Charge: charges at a floating voltage of 2.29V at 20°c or 2.27V at 25°C.

Installation:

  • Pure lead batteries can be fitted in any orientation, except upside-down.
  • Pure lead batteries are designed to be used in distribution panels or on building sites near to the place of use. A charging room is not necessary.
  • Pure lead batteries can be used in underwater applications.
  • Ideal for stationary system installation because of its long lifespan.

Characteristics:

  • High energy density
  • Tested long lifespan
  • Little need for ventilation
  • Available in 2V, 6V and 12V
  • Available in various sizes
  • Long shelf life (2 years for charged batteries).

Standards:

  • Compliant with BS6920 Part 4, CI60896 Part 2, EN60896 Part 2 and Telcordiap SR-4228
  • UL approved
  • Production sites certified ISO9001
  • Can be shipped as non-dangerous goods by road, sea and air
  • Available in various formats
  • Long shelf life

Product definition

Plate Technology
Casing material
Pure lead
ABS – UL specification = VO
Production Warranty 1 year
Production 6290/4 ISO14001 or ISO9001 standards according to BS
Eurobat classification Sealed accumulator
High safety 10 years +
Functionality 15 years
Anteriority Technology registered in 1971
Line produced since 1983

Advantages of Pure lead cells

Recombinant VRLA Lead Battery Maintenance free
Road, sea and air freight easily possible
Works in any position
Battery charging facility not necessary
Pure Lead Low self-discharge
Lower maintenance current
Chemical process reduction
Less gas to recombine
Increased lifespan
Good resistance to extreme temperatures
Higher energy density: unequalled weight to volume output
Extended storage: up to 2 years
Thin plates Exceptional fast discharge performance
More plates in one area
Unique cycling performance

 

Lead crystal

The Lead Crystal technology is a combination of the best aspects of the lead acid AMP9015technologies with liquid and gel electrolytes.

These batteries contain much less acid and do not contain any cadmium or antimony. This technology was developed in South Africa.
In addition, these batteries are up to 99% recyclable and are not classified as hazardous goods for transportation, even by air freight. AMP8009
This technology eliminates the known faults with batteries which
contain a liquid or gel electrolyte. An SiO2 composite electrolyte has been developed to replace the traditional sulphuric acid currently used in acid and gel batteries.

During the initial charge cycles, the liquid composite electrolyte reacts with the lead plates. This reaction leads to the crystallisation of the electrolyte, leaving no free-flowing liquid electrolyte within the battery. These batteries can therefore be used in a wide range of applications and in different orientations because there is no risk of the electrolyte leaking. This reaction also improves the safety of the products.

These patented batteries can be restored to full capacity after multiple deep discharges with no risk to the battery’s performance.
They can function in temperatures as low as – 40°C, and can safely be recharged up to 40% faster than traditional lead-acid batteries. Their lifespan for normal use is 18 to 20 years at 25°C; while their very low rate of self-discharge means that they can be stored for 2 years without additional charging.

Advantages:

  • 99% recyclable, and not classified asbatteries
    hazardous goods, even for air freight.
  • Can be charged 40% faster than traditional lead acid batteries.
  • Can be discharged in certain conditions to 0V without irreversible damage.
  • Wide range of operating temperatures: from -40°C to 65°C.
  • 1400 charge/discharge cycles to 80% DOD (depth of discharge).
  • 2 years storage with no additional charging.
  • 99% pure lead.

Disadvantages:

  • Can not compete with LiFePo4 in energy density
  • Size in comparison with LiFePo4 battery.

 

Deep Cycle Batteries

Deep cycle batteries are designed to provide a continuous supply of power to the equipment with which they are used. Although deep cycle batteries and starter batteries look alike, there are fundamental differences in design. Starter batteries are made to provide a momentary high power burst of energy, while deep cycle batteries are made for moderate power output and also allow cycling. These batteries have thick plates for improved cycling abilities.
Deep cycle batteries allow a high number of cycles. A standard deep cycle battery will allow about 400 cycles. The number of cycles is also linked to the number of full discharges. A full discharge will induce stress and reduce the battery’s life. Deep cycle batteries are designed to be discharged between 45% and 75% of their capacity.

Applications:

The main applications for deep cycle batteries are UPS’ (Uninterruptible power supply) for computers and other IT applications, electric vehicles such as golf carts, scooters, wheelchairs, forklift trucks, floor sweepers, traffic signals and other solar power and wind power systems.

Advantages:

  • High number of cycles
  • The battery’s maximum capacity is available
  • Long life

Disadvantages:

  • Number of cycles reduced by high/low temperatures
  • Full discharge reduces the life of the battery

Storage:

In order to preserve the battery life while in storage, lead acid batteries need to be charged every 6 months.